Bridges

Architecture and Engineering: Gehry, Schlaich, Calatrava, Virlogeux

Learning Objectives: Learn about the methods of form finding in A&E; Schlaich's invention with cables; Equilibrium an novel structural forms; Virlogeux's forms and innovations

Keywords: cable net, footbridge, titanium, efficiency, elegance, movable bridge, girder bridge, arch bridge, verticals

Cable-Stayed Bridges - History, Aesthetics, and Developments

Learning Objectives: Learn about the history, aesthetics, and development of cable-stayed (CS) bridges; contrasting them with suspension bridges; challenges and solutions in multi-span CS bridges

Keywords: cable-stayed bridges, pylon, deck, cable, load path, cable system, tension, compression,...

Eiffel's Bridges, Eads Bridge, and Baker's Firth of Forth Bridge

Description: Themes: Gustave Eiffel, James Eads, and Benjamin Baker as structural artists; Relationship between form and forces in a structure; Understanding the types of loads structures carry.

Finding Forms: Laurent Ney

Description: Themes: Historical context: post-World War II desire for European integration and the European Coal and Steel Community; Laurent Ney's exploration with different forms and development into a structural artist. Ney's major works of structural art

Freyssinet, Finsterwalder and Fallingwater - Origins and Solutions in Prestressed Concrete

Learning Objectives: Learn about the origins of prestressed concrete (PC) and Fressinet's story; Finsterwalder's advancements in PC bridges; Precast PC and America's Walnut Lane Bridge; Fallingwater, a historic preservation enabled through PC

History and Aesthetics in Suspension Bridges (Othmar Ammann, NYC Bridges, 20th century bridge engineering)

Keywords: suspension bridge, aesthetics, stiffness, deck, support forms, cables, scientific function, structural elements, tension, compression, FBD, safety factor

 

Introduction to Structural Art

Major structural forms, Materials, Historical impact of industrial revolution, Types of structures, Defining structural art, Evolution of structural artists

John A. Roebling and the Design of Suspension Bridges

Keywords: suspension bridge, aesthetics, stiffness, deck, support forms, cables, scientific, social, symbolic

 

John Augustus Roebling and the Brooklyn Bridge

Description: Themes: Brooklyn Bridge as an indicator of progress in the field of engineering; John A. Roebling as a structural artist; Cultural significance of the Brooklyn Bridge

New Bridge Forms: Christian Menn

Description: Themes: Pierre Lardy's mentorship of Christian Menn; Menn's improvement on Maillart's designs using newfound knowledge of prestressed concrete; Menn's evolution of form in the Feslenau, Ganter and Sunniberg Bridges.

New Bridge Forms: Jörg Schlaich and his Team

Description: Themes: Post World War II German bridge forms; Back-anchored and self-anchored suspension bridges; Structural honesty in design: forms derived from their structural behavior; Discipline and play: play as an exploration of varied structural forms.

New Bridge Forms: Maillart and Menn

Learning Objectives: Learn about the hollow box arch after Salginatobel; the bridges by Menn and Maillart's influence; Menn's long span (hollow box girder) arches; prestressing and deck-stiffening; the Ganter Bridge; Menn's cable-stayed bridges

Keywords: hollow box arch, long span arch, prestressed...

Othmar Ammann and the Bayonne Bridge and George Washington Bridge

Description: Themes: Historical Context: the development of Othmar Ammann as a structural artist; Wilhem Ritter and Gustave Lindenthal's influence on Ammann; Two of New York's significant bridges: The Bayonne and Goerge Washington bridges.

Robert Maillart and the Origins of Reinforced Concrete

Learning Objectives: Learn about new materials and new structural forms; the scientific functions of reinforced concrete and the 3-hinged arch; the evolution of form in the concrete hollow box arches of RM; bending moments and the form of the Salginatobel Bridge

Telford, Brunel and British Metal Forms (1780's to 1880's British Structural Engineering)

Keywords: cast iron, acqueduct, cast iron, arch, bridge, wrought iron, suspension bridge

 

The Golden Gate Bridge

Description: Themes: Conceptual development for the design of the Golden Gate Bridge; Social story of the Golden Gate bridge; Joseph Strauss' role in the construction of the bridge; Charles Anton Ellis, Leon Moissieff, and Othmar Ammann as consultants of design and construction.

The Origins of Prestressing: Freyssinet, Magnel, and Finsterwalder

Description: Themes: Evolution of prestressed concrete from reinforced concrete; Eugene Freyssinet's study of large-span reinforced concrete arches and concrete ""creep""; Gustave Magnel's Sclayn Bridge and Walnut Lane Bridge; Ulrich Finsterwalder takes prestressed concrete to a new level with Mangfall Bridge and the cantilever...

The Origins of Reinforced Concrete: Robert Maillart

Description: Themes: Role of reinforced concrete in Robert Maillart's famous works; Maillart's early evolution of form: Stauffacher, Zuoz, Tavanasa, and Salginatobel bridges; Maillart's process of improvement on his structures throughout his career.

The Origins of Structural Art: Telford, Brunel, and British Metal Forms

Description: Themes: Historical context for the beginning of structural engineering as a discipline; Thomas Telford and his works; Early evolution of building material.

The Politics of the Art of Spanish Bridge Design

Description: Themes: The influence of the economic and political climate on engineering works; The dangers of the Bilbao effect and the importance of socially responsible design; Flow of forces in a tied arch bridge and a cable stayed bridge; Characteristics of a bridge hero; The roles of discipline and play in successful...

The Swiss Tradition of Bridge Design (deck stiffened arches)

Learning Objectives: Learn about the excellence in bridge innovation and how the Swiss approached it; Ritter's research, teaching, and role in Maillart's arches; the constructional evolution of the deck-stiffened arch using Maillart's approach and how they relate to structural art; Maillart's arches vs. USA arches and optimal...

Wind, Suspension Bridges, and the Verrazano Narrows Bridge

Description: Themes: Elastic and deflection theory in long-span suspension bridges; Lessons of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge failure; Historical perspective in designing new works of structural engineering.