Architecture and Engineering: Gehry, Schlaich, Calatrava, Virlogeux

Learning Objectives: Learn about the methods of form finding in A&E; Schlaich's invention with cables; Equilibrium an novel structural forms; Virlogeux's forms and innovations

Keywords: cable net, footbridge, titanium, efficiency, elegance, movable bridge, girder bridge, arch bridge, verticals

Félix Candela and the Hyperbolic Paraboloid

Description: Themes: Félix Candela's evolution as a structural artist; Imitation and innovation of observed thin-shell forms; From master builder to structural artist.

Finding Forms: Laurent Ney

Description: Themes: Historical context: post-World War II desire for European integration and the European Coal and Steel Community; Laurent Ney's exploration with different forms and development into a structural artist. Ney's major works of structural art

Heinz Isler and "Natural" Forms for Shells

Description: Themes: Heinz Isler as a master builder and structural artist; Emphasis on "natural" forms: pneumatic, hanging, extrusion/flow; Isler's masterpieces: uninterrupted thin shell structures.

Introduction to Structural Art

Major structural forms, Materials, Historical impact of industrial revolution, Types of structures, Defining structural art, Evolution of structural artists

Pier Luigi Nervi and the Italian Tradition of Ribbed Vaults

Description: Themes: Pier Luigi Nervi's use of rib-patterned shells; Pre-cast concrete elments and ferrocement in Nervi's structures.

Roof Vaults and National Styles

Learning Objectives: Learn about roof vault approaches in various countries; economy of labor vs efficiency of materials; complexity of analysis vs. complexity of form; concrete shells and stiffness

Keywords: curvature, stiffness, roof, one direction, strength, roof vault, rib, double curvature, form,...

The German vs. Spanish Tradition of Thin-Shell Roof Forms

Description: Themes: Origins of thin concrete vaulted forms in Germany and the US; Mathematical versus experience driven thin shell construction; Franz Dischinger, Ulrich Finsterwalder, and Anton Tedesko; Right form versus wrong form in thin-shell construction.

The Gothic Cathedral and the Skyscraper

Description: Themes: Crafted versus engineered construction; Structura generations form versus aesthetics generates form; Parallels between the Gothic Catehdral and the early tall buildings.